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This spectacular journey can be enjoyed when you return back from your sunrise trip at Penanjakan. The trip itinerary is normally like this: Tosari - National Park Entrance - PenanjakanSea of Sands - Kawah Bromo - Wonokitri - Tosari.


Your journey to and back from Penanjakan will pass through exquisite region of sub-alpine and montane forests which are rare in South East Asia due to the generally tropical climate. By definition, a montane zone is the forest area lying at an elevation between 1,500m to 2,400m, while a sub-alpine zone is much higher elevation.

The flora in the area is considered atypical and endemic only to this particular region, mainly because of the nearby volcanoes which eruptions do have occasional influence to local weather conditions. There are 4 distinct types of vegetation recorded by the national park authority, namely highland forest, Alvin forest, casuarina (cemara) forest and grassland (which we can witness at the Sea of Sands).

Generally, the forest scene is very different from the lush tropical ones we would expect in Indonesia. The larger trees grow sparsely between each other and the forest, by any standard, is not considered thick. The dominant tree specie that can grow tall in the area are cemara (Casuarina jumhuhniana), Mentig (Vacinum karingifalium), Kemlandingan Gunung (Albezzia lofanta), and Akasia (Acacia decurens). Their dominating presence forms a somewhat homogenous forest ecosystem, hence it is not uncommon to see only towering casuarina trees in certain parts.

Unlike tropical forests which can have up to 4 layers of tree of different height, the sub-temperate forest in the national park only have two distinct layers. As mentioned previously, the dominant specie will grow as high as they can, while the so-called bottom specie will thrive down below. Uniquely, the special Javanese edelweiss flowers or locally known as senduro (Anaphalis javanica) can be found among the bottom floor. This is rather surprising because all these whiles, I thought such rare flowers are endemic only in the European Alps, such as in Switzerland. Other bottom specie that you can find include Imperata cylindrica, Pteris sp., Themeda sp.,and Centella assatica.

Unique forest area. Breathtaking view.

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